Under the common denominator of robots there are now countless expressions of machines that, in the most varied ways, simulate the behavior of man both in movement and in physical features, very often also looking for an affinity in terms of image. Based on the ways in which a robot simulates the human being, we can identify some types of reference robot building kit for adults.
These are robotic systems that simulate, with explicit reference in kinematics, the movement of man, in particular of his limbs, without neglecting perception and the ability to move in physical environments.
The most famous and widespread anthropomorphic robots are in all likelihood the robotic arms, born in the industrial sector and today increasingly widespread in collaborative applications, not necessarily linked to the manufacturing assembly line. The robotic arm makes no claims of analogy in the image with man, but while proudly demonstrating that it is in effect a machine, it is very similar in kinematics to the human arm.
The structure of a humanoid robot explicitly mentions that of man, expressing its appearance in the individual parts, such as head, body, arms, hands, legs and even particular accessories, attributable to tools of common use for humans. In the common imagination of pop culture we could mention the legendary Japanese robots, such as Grendizer, Jeeg Robot of steel, Daitarn 3, Gundam and many others.
On a commercial level we find several models, many of which still come from the engineering of the rising sun, such as the famous Asimo, by Honda Robotics, capable even of running and taking penalty kicks, rather than Pepper (Aldebaran Robotics for Softbank), one of the most popular domestic robots ever. All the examples cited are reminiscent of a person in a stylized way, even if their look immediately recalls that of a car.
Among the hundreds of models of humanoid robots ever developed here a quote is definitely worth the iCub, produced by the Italian Institute of Technology with the intention of making a very complex machine, relatively low in cost, inspired by a child of about five years. Based on its experience, the IIT has also developed R1, a very advanced domestic robot especially as regards the upper limbs, equipped with prehensile hands and an artificial skin designed to provide the robot with tactile perception. R1 has social robot capabilities and can also be used for elderly care, as a caregiver or nurse.